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Landet var under sin tid som folkrepublik medlem av Warszawapakten och Comecon. Under Stalin -perioden styrdes landet med mycket repressiva metoder.
I september avsattes Gierek av partiet. Sedan dess har landet demokratiskt statsskick. Under kommunisteran led landet av stora brister i medborgarrätt och demokrati, ineffektiv produktion och varubrist, vilket ledde till att korruption och svartabörssystem permanentades.
Landet är sedan en av USA: Polen är en demokratisk republik. Sejmen har en femprocentsspärr, som dock inte gäller för etniska partier.
Den nuvarande polska grundlagen skrevs I valet den 25 oktober vann partiet Lag och Rättvisa PiS och fick egen majoritet i parlamentet.
Polens militär kallas i Polen för Wojsko Polskie. Militären är indelad i tre grenar: Inom vojvodskapen finns powiaty , vilket skulle kunna översättas med distrikt.
Sedan finns powiat ziemski landsdistrikt och 65 powiat grodzki stadsdistrikt. Polen var en av de sovjetiska lydstater som hade starkast ekonomi.
Den största strukturförändringen i Polens utrikeshandel har skett till följd av handelsblocket Comecons sammanbrott. Efter Polens inträde i Europeiska unionen skedde en massiv arbetskraftsutvandring av attraktiva yrkesgrupper till huvudsakligen Irland och Storbritannien vilket skapade arbetskraftsbrist i landet av bland annat läkare, ingenjörer, hantverkare, byggnadsarbetare och jordbruksarbetare.
Polen är det enda EU-land som uppvisat en positiv tillväxt under hela den globala finanskrisen Under uppskattades Polens export till ,8 miljarder euro.
Den största polska exporten är: Idag är Polen EU: Polens vägnät har en ganska blandad standard. Mindre vägar har därför fortfarande en lägre standard eftersom det tar tid att rusta upp dessa.
Järnvägsnätet är väl utbyggt i Polen. Detta har medfört att dagens Polen är ett väldigt homogent land; av Polens befolkning anser sig 96,74 procent vara polacker.
Bland Polens minoriteter märks tyskar , ukrainare , litauer , judar och vitryssar. Det finns även mindre grupper kasjuber , tatarer , armenier , romer , slovaker , ryssar , greker , makedonier , lemker och tjecker.
The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing in and during the Battle of Königsberg in ; it was then captured and occupied by the Soviet Union on 9 April Its German population was expelled , and the city was repopulated with Russians and others from the Soviet Union.
It is now the capital of Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast , an exclave bordered in the north by Lithuania and in the south by Poland. There has been some discussion of the territory's current legal status , although this is largely academic.
The Potsdam Agreement placed it provisionally under Soviet administration, but did not mention an explicit right of annexation.
In the Final Settlement treaty of , Germany renounced all claim to it, but without specifically transferring its former title to any other party.
Königsberg was preceded by a Sambian , or Old Prussian , fort known as Twangste Tuwangste , Tvankste , meaning Oak Forest,  as well as several Old Prussian settlements, including the fishing village and port Lipnick , and the farming villages Sakkeim and Trakkeim.
During the conquest of the Prussian Sambians by the Teutonic Knights in , Twangste was destroyed and replaced with a new fortress known as Conigsberg.
The Teutonic Order used Königsberg to fortify their conquests in Samland and as a base for campaigns against pagan Lithuania. Under siege during the Prussian uprisings in —63, Königsberg Castle was relieved by the Master of the Livonian Order.
This new settlement, Altstadt , received Culm rights in Löbenicht , a new town directly east of Altstadt between the Pregel and the Schlossteich , received its own rights in Medieval Königsberg's third town was Kneiphof , which received town rights in and was located on an island of the same name in the Pregel south of Altstadt.
Within the state of the Teutonic Order , Königsberg was the residence of the marshal, one of the chief administrators of the military order.
Adalbert of Prague became the main patron saint of Königsberg Cathedral , a landmark of the city located in Kneiphof.
Königsberg joined the Hanseatic League in and developed into an important port for the south-eastern Baltic region, trading goods throughout Prussia, the Kingdom of Poland , and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
The chronicler Peter of Dusburg probably wrote his Chronicon terrae Prussiae in Königsberg from — Although the knights suffered a crippling defeat in the Battle of Grunwald Tannenberg , Königsberg remained under the control of the Teutonic Knights throughout the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War.
While Königsberg's three towns initially joined the rebellion, Altstadt and Löbenicht soon rejoined the Teutonic Knights and defeated Kneiphof in Grand Master Ludwig von Erlichshausen fled from the crusaders' capital at Castle Marienburg to Königsberg in ; the city's magistrate presented Erlichshausen with a barrel of beer out of compassion.
While the Prussian estates quickly allied with the duke, the Prussian peasantry would only swear allegiance to Albert in person at Königsberg, seeking the duke's support against oppressive nobility.
After convincing the rebels to lay down their arms, Albert had several of their leaders executed. Königsberg, the capital, became one of the biggest cities and ports of ducal Prussia, having considerable autonomy, a separate parliament and currency.
While German served as the fief's official language, the city served as a vibrant center of publishing in both the Polish and Lithuanian Languages.
The city flourished through the export of wheat , timber , hemp , and furs ,  as well as pitch , tar , and ash.
The university had a profound impact on the development of Lithuanian culture, and several important Lithuanian writers attended the Albertina.
The university was also the preferred educational institution of the Baltic German nobility. The capable Duke Albert was succeeded by his feeble minded son, Albert Frederick.
In the Treaty of Wehlau in , however, he negotiated the release of Prussia from Polish sovereignty in return for an alliance with Poland.
In Frederick William informed the Prussian diet that he possessed jus supremi et absoluti domini , and that the Prussian Landtag could convene with his permission.
The Prussian estates which swore fealty to Frederick William in Königsberg on 18 October  refused the elector's requests for military funding, and Colonel Christian Ludwig von Kalckstein sought assistance from neighbouring Poland.
After the elector's agents had abducted Kalckstein, he was executed in The Prussian estates' submission to Frederick William followed; in and the elector received taxes not granted by the estates and Königsberg received a garrison without the estates' consent.
Königsberg long remained a centre of Lutheran resistance to Calvinism within Brandenburg-Prussia ; Frederick William forced the city to accept Calvinist citizens and property-holders in Since "Kingdom of Prussia" was increasingly used to designate all of the Hohenzollern lands, former ducal Prussia became known as the Province of Prussia — , with Königsberg as its capital.
However, Berlin and Potsdam in Brandenburg were the main residences of the Prussian kings. The city was wracked by plague and other illnesses from September to April , losing 9, people, or roughly a quarter of its populace.
Suburbs that subsequently were annexed to Königsberg include Sackheim, Rossgarten, and Tragheim. With the end of the Seven Years' War the Russian army abandoned the town in After the First Partition of Poland in , Königsberg became the capital of the province of East Prussia in , which replaced the Province of Prussia in By the city was approximately five miles 8.
In order to foster liberalism and nationalism among the Prussian middle class, the "League of Virtue" was founded in Königsberg in April The French forced its dissolution in December , but its ideals were continued by the Turnbewegung of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in Berlin.
In Königsberg had a population of 63, It was also the seat of the Regierungsbezirk Königsberg , an administrative subdivision.
Led by the provincial president Theodor von Schön and the Königsberger Volkszeitung newspaper, Königsberg was a stronghold of liberalism against the conservative government of King Frederick William IV.
A sophisticated for its time series of fortifications around the city that included fifteen forts was completed in In the railway connecting Berlin with St.
Petersburg was completed and increased Königsberg's commerce. Extensive electric tramways were in operation by ; and regular steamers plied to Memel , Tapiau and Labiau , Cranz , Tilsit, and Danzig.
The completion of a canal to Pillau in increased the trade of Russian grain in Königsberg, but, like much of eastern Germany, the city's economy was generally in decline.
Königsberg and East Prussia , however, were separated from the rest of Weimar Germany by the creation of the Polish Corridor.
In the s Nazis confiscated Jewish shops and, as in the rest of Germany, a public book burning was organised, accompanied by anti-Semitic speeches in May at the Trommelplatz square.
Street names and monuments of Jewish origin were removed, and signs such as "Jews are not welcomed in hotels" started appearing. As part of the state-wide "aryanisation" of the civil service Jewish academics were ejected from the university.
In the local paramilitary SA had already started to terrorise their political opponents. In July Adolf Hitler made a speech in the city, gathering 25, supporters.
The Otto-Braun-House was requisitioned and became the headquarters of the SA, which used the house to imprison and torture opponents. Walter Schütz , a communist member of the Reichstag , was murdered here.
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New Zealand Security Intelligence Service documents declassified in revealed that year-old Christopher John Lewis fired a shot with a.
Two years into his sentence, he attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital in order to assassinate Prince Charles , who was visiting the country with Diana, Princess of Wales , and Prince William.
In a serious lapse of security, assistance only arrived after two calls to the Palace police switchboard. Intense media interest in the opinions and private lives of the royal family during the s led to a series of sensational stories in the press, not all of which were entirely true.
Don't worry if it's not true—so long as there's not too much of a fuss about it afterwards. The sources of the rumours included royal aide Michael Shea and Commonwealth Secretary-General Shridath Ramphal , but Shea claimed his remarks were taken out of context and embellished by speculation.
By the end of the s, the Queen had become the target of satire. As monarch of Fiji , Elizabeth supported the attempts of the Governor-General , Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau , to assert executive power and negotiate a settlement.
Coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka deposed Ganilau and declared Fiji a republic. In , in the wake of coalition victory in the Gulf War , the Queen became the first British monarch to address a joint meeting of the United States Congress.
In a speech on 24 November , to mark the 40th anniversary of her accession, Elizabeth called her annus horribilis , meaning horrible year.
The monarchy came under increased criticism and public scrutiny. In the years to follow, public revelations on the state of Charles and Diana's marriage continued.
In August , a year after the divorce, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris. The Queen was on holiday with her extended family at Balmoral. Diana's two sons by Charles — Princes William and Harry — wanted to attend church and so the Queen and Prince Philip took them that morning.
In November , the Queen and her husband held a reception at Banqueting House to mark their golden wedding anniversary. In , Elizabeth marked her Golden Jubilee.
Her sister and mother died in February and March respectively, and the media speculated whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure. A million people attended each day of the three-day main Jubilee celebration in London,  and the enthusiasm shown by the public for the Queen was greater than many journalists had expected.
Though generally healthy throughout her life, in she had keyhole surgery on both knees. In October , she missed the opening of the new Emirates Stadium because of a strained back muscle that had been troubling her since the summer.
In May , The Daily Telegraph , citing unnamed sources, reported the Queen was "exasperated and frustrated" by the policies of the British Prime Minister, Tony Blair , that she was concerned the British Armed Forces were overstretched in Iraq and Afghanistan, and that she had raised concerns over rural and countryside issues with Blair.
The Queen addressed the United Nations for a second time in , again in her capacity as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth.
Elizabeth's Diamond Jubilee in marked 60 years on the throne, and celebrations were held throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond.
In a message released on Accession Day , Elizabeth wrote:. In this special year, as I dedicate myself anew to your service, I hope we will all be reminded of the power of togetherness and the convening strength of family, friendship and good neighbourliness I hope also that this Jubilee year will be a time to give thanks for the great advances that have been made since and to look forward to the future with clear head and warm heart.
She and her husband undertook an extensive tour of the United Kingdom, while her children and grandchildren embarked on royal tours of other Commonwealth states on her behalf.
The Queen, who opened the Summer Olympics in Montreal, also opened the Summer Olympics and Paralympics in London, making her the first head of state to open two Olympic Games in two countries.
She returned to Buckingham Palace the following day. She was represented at the summit in Sri Lanka by her son, Prince Charles.
The Queen surpassed her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria , to become the longest-lived British monarch on 21 December , and the longest-reigning British monarch and longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state in the world on 9 September The Queen does not intend to abdicate ,  though Prince Charles is expected to take on more of her duties as Elizabeth, who celebrated her 92nd birthday in , carries out fewer public engagements.
The Queen stated it was her "sincere wish" that the Prince of Wales would follow her in the role. Since Elizabeth rarely gives interviews, little is known of her personal feelings.
As a constitutional monarch , she has not expressed her own political opinions in a public forum.
In , she said:. To many of us, our beliefs are of fundamental importance. For me the teachings of Christ and my own personal accountability before God provide a framework in which I try to lead my life.
I, like so many of you, have drawn great comfort in difficult times from Christ's words and example. She is patron of over organisations and charities.
In the s, as a young woman at the start of her reign, Elizabeth was depicted as a glamorous "fairytale Queen". At her Silver Jubilee in , the crowds and celebrations were genuinely enthusiastic,  but in the s, public criticism of the royal family increased, as the personal and working lives of Elizabeth's children came under media scrutiny.
Under pressure from public opinion, she began to pay income tax for the first time, and Buckingham Palace was opened to the public.
In November , a referendum in Australia on the future of the Australian monarchy favoured its retention in preference to an indirectly elected head of state.
The first official portrait of Elizabeth was taken by Marcus Adams in Elizabeth's personal fortune has been the subject of speculation for many years.
Elizabeth has held many titles and honorary military positions throughout the Commonwealth, is Sovereign of many orders in her own countries, and has received honours and awards from around the world.
In each of her realms she has a distinct title that follows a similar formula: Queen of Jamaica and her other realms and territories in Jamaica, Queen of Australia and her other realms and territories in Australia, etc.
Additional styles include Defender of the Faith and Duke of Lancaster. When in conversation with the Queen, the practice is to initially address her as Your Majesty and thereafter as Ma'am.
From 21 April until her accession, Elizabeth's arms consisted of a lozenge bearing the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom differenced with a label of three points argent , the centre point bearing a Tudor rose and the first and third a cross of St George.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
For other uses, see Elizabeth II disambiguation. Vincent and the Grenadines. Philip, Duke of Edinburgh m. Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten.
Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. Personality and image of Elizabeth II. Finances of the British royal family.
List of titles and honours of Elizabeth II. Flags of Elizabeth II. Coat of arms of Princess Elizabeth — Coat of arms of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh — Coat of arms of Elizabeth II in Scotland.
Coat of arms of Elizabeth II in Canada one of three versions used in her reign [d]. Ancestors of Elizabeth II 8. George V of the United Kingdom 9.
Princess Alexandra of Denmark 2. George VI of the United Kingdom Francis, Duke of Teck 5. Princess Mary of Teck Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge 1.
Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom Frances Dora Smith 3. Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon This version was used between and Early life and education".
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Retrieved 15 June National Museum of Wales. Archived from the original on 18 May Retrieved 17 December Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 23 September Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 20 June National Gallery of Australia.
Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 4 December Gifts to the Queen". Retrieved 20 February Sixty years of royal tours".
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Retrieved 19 March Retrieved 17 September Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 8 December Queen's dismay at Blair legacy".
Retrieved 31 May Retrieved 12 October Retrieved 7 July Nicholas , was opened for non-Germans, especially Lithuanians and Poles.
Nicholas was converted to a German-language church; weekly Polish services remained only for Masurians in the Prussian Army , although those were halted in Königsberg was the birthplace of the mathematician Christian Goldbach and the writer E.
While working there he published his Critique of Pure Reason arguing that knowledge arises from the application of innate concepts to sensory experience and his Metaphysics of Morals which argues that virtue is acquired by the performance of duty for its own sake.
In the 19th century Königsberg was the birthplace of the influential mathematician David Hilbert. The language of government and high culture was German.
Low Prussian was widely spoken, but is now a moribund language as its refugee speakers are elderly and dying out. Old Prussian , a Baltic language , became extinct in the 18th century.
About 50 works were by Italian masters; some early Dutch paintings were also to be found there. Königsberg had a magnificent Exchange completed in with fine views of the harbour from the staircase.
There was also an observatory fitted up by the astronomer Friedrich Bessel , a botanical garden, and a zoological museum.
The "Physikalisch", near the Heumarkt, contained botanical and anthropological collections and prehistoric antiquities. Two large theatres built during the Wilhelmine era were the Stadt city Theatre and the Apollo.
Königsberg Castle was one of the city's most notable structures. It also contained the spacious Moscowiter-Saal, one of the largest halls in the German Reich , and a museum of Prussian history.
Königsberg became a centre of education when the Albertina University was founded by Duke Albert of Prussia in The university was opposite the north and east side of the Königsberg Cathedral.
Lithuanian scholar Stanislovas Rapalionis , one of founding fathers of the university, was the first professor of theology.
As a consequence of the Protestant Reformation , the and subsequent Prussian church orders called for providing religious literature in the languages spoken by the recipients.
The club still exists, and is now headquartered in Hamburg. Königsberg was well-known within Germany for its unique regional cuisine.
A popular dish from the city was Königsberger Klopse , which is still made today in some specialist restaurants in Kaliningrad and present-day Germany.
The fortifications of Königsberg consist of numerous defensive walls , forts, bastions and other structures. They make up the First and the Second Defensive Belt, built in — and —, respectively.
There was a Bismarck tower just outside Königsberg, on the Galtgarben, the highest point on the Sambian peninsula. It was built in and destroyed by German troops sometime in January as the Russians approached.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city before For after , see Kaliningrad. For other uses, see Königsberg disambiguation.
Königsberg Castle before World War I. Königsberg was a port city on the south eastern corner of the Baltic Sea. It is today known as Kaliningrad and remains under Russian control.
Timeline of Kaliningrad history. History of the Jews in Königsberg. History of Poles in Königsberg. List of people from Königsberg. Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare.
Archeologia, Historia, Ethnographia, et Linguarum Scientia. A history of Prussia. Kant, Herder, and the birth of anthropology. University of Chicago Press.
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