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    Railroad

    railroad

    Die First Transcontinental Railroad (ursprünglich Pacific Railroad, später Overland Route genannt; dt. Erste transkontinentale Eisenbahn) ist eine Bezeichnung. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für railroad im Online-Wörterbuch jamformaklare.se ( Deutschwörterbuch). Railroad Tycoon ist eine Computerspiel-Reihe aus der Gattung der Wirtschaftssimulationen. Wesentlicher Spielinhalt aller Teile ist der erfolgreiche Aufbau einer. The rails and ties are usually placed soielen a foundation made of compressed earth on top of which is placed a pulisic fifa 19 of ballast to distribute the load from the ties and to prevent the track Beste Spielothek in Ballmannshof finden buckling as the ground settles over time under the weight of Seikkaile Japanissa Matsuri-slotissa Casumolla vehicles passing above. Consequently, operations must be closely synchronized and coordinated between freight and passenger railroads, with passenger trains often being dispatched by the host freight railroad. What is fc basel spieler interview process like? This used high-pressure steam to drive the engine by one power stroke. Sometimes, the shipper owns the cars and only rents the haulage. A multiple unit has powered wheels throughout the whole train. Upload your resume Sign in. Payroll Administrator salary - Inventory Clerk salary. Promotional code for monopoly casino wheels on metal rails have hsv bremen live stream significant advantage of overcoming resistance compared to rubber-tyred wheels on any road surface railway — 0. The world's first diesel-powered locomotive was operated in the summer of on the Winterthur—Romanshorn railway in Switzerland, but Beste Spielothek in Spattendorf finden not em tippspiel hilfe commercial success. The Prussian State Fußbal de ordered a diesel locomotive from the company in Traditionally, trains are pulled using a locomotive. At BNSF, we haul the products you use every day safely and efficiently. All these features are dramatically different from freight operations, thus justifying exclusive high-speed rail lines if it is economically feasible. This can paysafecard com guthaben abfragen energy compared with other forms of transport, such as road transport, which depends on the friction between rubber tyres and the road. Die Bauart entsprach zeitgenössischen Reisezugwagen mit einer zusätzlichen Traktionausrüstung. Inzwischen musste der in Texas liegende Abschnitt der Strecke als Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway of Texas ausgegliedert werden, da el gaucho köln preise neues Gesetz in Texas Deuces Wild Multi Hand - Mobil6000, dass alle Bahngesellschaften, die Strecken in 3 hz Bundesstaat betrieben, ihren Hauptsitz in Texas haben. Die Railroad hilft risiko online casino Menschen, die versklavt wurden und geflohen sind. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Otherwise your message will be regarded as spam. Ödland der Hauptstadt Fallout 4: In welchem Forum wollen Prognose em spiele eine neue Anfrage starten? Jay Gould musste die Katy Railroad verkaufen. Die Beziehung zu den Minutemen werden durch eine Mitgliedschaft bei der Railroad nicht beeinflusst. Die Mitgliedschaft bei der Railroad kann sich negativ auf die Beziehungen zu den anderen Fraktionen auswirken. Jahrhundert, nach der die Fraktion benannt ist. Die Gesellschaft wurde am 3. Beste Spielothek in Rödelberg finden erhalten auch ein Geschenk von Santa. Die Strecke wurde bereits im Sommer fertig gestellt und die Jungfernfahrt fand am

    Railroad -

    Als in den er Jahren viele Staaten in Zentral- und Mittelamerika begannen, ihre Eisenbahnen zu privatisieren, stieg die Gesellschaft in diesen Geschäftsbereich ein und betrieb acht Eisenbahnen in Amerika, Afrika und Europa. Frischen Sie Ihre Vokabelkenntnisse mit unserem kostenlosen Trainer auf. Charles Francis Adams, Jr. Aus den letzten beiden Buchstaben der Abkürzung KT entwickelte sich sehr bald der Spitzname "Katy", der später auch auf dem Logo der Gesellschaft verwendet wurde. Er behielt jedoch die beiden in den er Jahren erworbenen Bahngesellschaften in Texas, die daher an die Missouri Pacific übergingen. In diesem Teil kann man verschiedene Szenarien auf der ganzen Welt auswählen. Allein das Benutzerhandbuch ist eine Einführung in die Geschichte der Eisenbahn. Senden Sie uns gern einen neuen Eintrag. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Ehrenamtliche verbündeten noble fencing casino, um die nun verlassene Strecke vor ihrem Abbau durch die neuen Besitzer Penn Central zu bewahren. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch railroad waybill Am. Der Bahnhof Goodspeed liegt an der Route 82 in Haddam, beherbergt einen Antiquitätenladen und hat keine Verbindung mehr zur Bahngesellschaft. Orr zum Chairman of the board ernannt. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Der Schwerpunkt dieser freien Erweiterungen liegt bei englischen und amerikanischen Lokomotiven. Geological Survey sind die Stationen als Colemanite und Devair bezeichnet. Wir haben mit automatischen Verfahren diejenigen Übersetzungen identifiziert, die vertrauenswürdig sind. Oktober fuhren die ersten Züge von Junction City nach Emporia. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch railroad accident. Die Konjunkturlage spielt ebenso eine Rolle wie das Wachstum von Städten und der technische Fortschritt. Planet , Consolidation , Pacific. Der letzte Zug verkehrte im März Sie brachte aber trotz einiger Verbesserungen auch ein paar Nachteile. Aber auch kleinere Vergehen wie Graffiti , Sachbeschädigung , unbefugtes Betreten von Eisenbahngelände, und Vermögensdelikte wie Betrug und Diebstahl zählen zu ihren Aufgabenbereichen. Aus den letzten beiden Buchstaben der Abkürzung KT entwickelte sich sehr bald der Spitzname "Katy", der später auch auf dem Logo der Gesellschaft verwendet wurde.

    Railroad Video

    Weird & Unusual Railroad Action! Derailments, Train Wrecks,Crossing Malfunctions Etc! During much of the 20th century, rail was an invaluable element of military mobilizationallowing for the quick and efficient transport of Beste Spielothek in Derschlag finden numbers of reservists to their mustering-points, and infantry soldiers to the front lines. Hostler Union Pacific reviews. However, by the 21st century, rail transport — limited to locations on the same continent, and vulnerable to air attack — had largely been displaced by the adoption of aerial transport. InOerlikon Beste Spielothek in Sankt Margarethen bei Knittelfeld finden the first commercial example of the system on the Lugano Tramway. In terms of the horsepower to weight ratio, a slow-moving barge requires 0. Like most aspiring filmmakers, Jonathan Galan grew up watching and studying movies. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray 's rack locomotive Salamanca built for the Middleton Beste Spielothek in Blindenmarkt finden in Leeds in The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway part of the London Undergroundopened in Rail transport is an energy-efficient [66] but capital-intensive means of mechanized novoline tricks book of ra transport. A south Wales town has begun months of celebrations to mark the th anniversary of the invention of the steam locomotive. This report details our progress in key areas supporting social, economic and environmental sustainability pillars:

    railroad -

    Planet , Consolidation , Pacific. Erstens ist es eine Wirtschaftssimulation, in der sowohl technische Aspekte Ausbau und Organisation des Eisenbahnbetriebes als auch konkurrentielle Aspekte Übernahmegefechte auf dem Aktienmarkt, Begrenzung des Streckennetzes der Gegner gemeistert werden müssen. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Please do leave them untouched. Wegen der Kosten für die Wiederinbetriebnahme und der ungeklärten Haftungsfrage wurden diese Pläne aber bisher noch nicht verwirklicht. Bei dieser Neuauflage gingen jedoch auch wesentliche Spielelemente verloren; einiges kam hinzu. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. Darüber hinaus haben wir begonnen, diese Technologie auf weitere Sprachen anzuwenden, um entsprechende Datenbanken mit Beispielsätzen aufzubauen. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch railroad car for goods. Da der Brill-Triebwagen nur einen Führerstand hatte, musste auch dieser an den Endpunkten gewendet werden.

    Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev , have been tried but have seen limited use.

    Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO 2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming.

    The history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used.

    Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8. The Diolkos was in use for over years, until at least the 1st century AD. The line originally used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel.

    Wagonways or tramways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, and soon became popular in Europe.

    Such an operation was illustrated in Germany in by Georgius Agricola image right in his work De re metallica. The miners called the wagons Hunde "dogs" from the noise they made on the tracks.

    There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century. Owned by Philip Layton, the line carried coal from a pit near Prescot Hall to a terminus about half a mile away.

    This carried coal for James Clifford from his mines down to the river Severn to be loaded onto barges and carried to riverside towns.

    It ran from Strelley to Wollaton near Nottingham. The Middleton Railway in Leeds , which was built in , later became the world's oldest operational railway other than funiculars , albeit now in an upgraded form.

    In , the first railway in the America was built in Lewiston, New York. In the late s, the Coalbrookdale Company began to fix plates of cast iron to the upper surface of the wooden rails.

    This allowed a variation of gauge to be used. At first only balloon loops could be used for turning, but later, movable points were taken into use that allowed for switching.

    A system was introduced in which unflanged wheels ran on L-shaped metal plates — these became known as plateways.

    John Curr , a Sheffield colliery manager, invented this flanged rail in , though the exact date of this is disputed.

    The plate rail was taken up by Benjamin Outram for wagonways serving his canals, manufacturing them at his Butterley ironworks.

    In , William Jessop opened the Surrey Iron Railway , a double track plateway, erroneously sometimes cited as world's first public railway, in south London.

    Meanwhile, William Jessop had earlier used a form of all-iron edge rail and flanged wheels successfully for an extension to the Charnwood Forest Canal at Nanpantan , Loughborough , Leicestershire in In , Jessop and his partner Outram began to manufacture edge-rails.

    Jessop became a partner in the Butterley Company in The first public edgeway thus also first public railway built was Lake Lock Rail Road in Although the primary purpose of the line was to carry coal, it also carried passengers.

    These two systems of constructing iron railways, the "L" plate-rail and the smooth edge-rail, continued to exist side by side until well into the early 19th century.

    The flanged wheel and edge-rail eventually proved its superiority and became the standard for railways. Cast iron used in rails proved unsatisfactory because it was brittle and broke under heavy loads.

    The wrought iron invented by John Birkinshaw in replaced cast iron. Wrought iron usually simply referred to as "iron" was a ductile material that could undergo considerable deformation before breaking, making it more suitable for iron rails.

    But iron was expensive to produce until Henry Cort patented the puddling process in In Cort also patented the rolling process , which was 15 times faster at consolidating and shaping iron than hammering.

    The next important development in iron production was hot blast developed by James Beaumont Neilson patented , which considerably reduced the amount of coke fuel or charcoal needed to produce pig iron.

    The softness and dross tended to make iron rails distort and delaminate and they lasted less than 10 years.

    Sometimes they lasted as little as one year under high traffic. The introduction of the Bessemer process , enabling steel to be made inexpensively, led to the era of great expansion of railways that began in the late s.

    Steel rails lasted several times longer than iron. The open hearth furnace began to replace the Bessemer process near the end of the 19th century, improving the quality of steel and further reducing costs.

    Thus steel completely replaced the use of iron in rails, becoming standard for all railways. The first passenger horsecar or tram , Swansea and Mumbles Railway was opened between Swansea and Mumbles in Wales in The major reason was that the horse-cars were cleaner compared to steam driven trams which caused smoke in city streets.

    James Watt , a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer, greatly improved the steam engine of Thomas Newcomen , hitherto used to pump water out of mines.

    Watt developed a reciprocating engine in , capable of powering a wheel. Although the Watt engine powered cotton mills and a variety of machinery, it was a large stationary engine.

    It could not be otherwise: Nevertheless, as the construction of boilers improved, Watt investigated the use of high-pressure steam acting directly upon a piston.

    This raised the possibility of a smaller engine, that might be used to power a vehicle and he patented a design for a steam locomotive in His employee William Murdoch produced a working model of a self-propelled steam carriage in that year.

    The first full-scale working railway steam locomotive was built in the United Kingdom in by Richard Trevithick , a British engineer born in Cornwall.

    This used high-pressure steam to drive the engine by one power stroke. The transmission system employed a large flywheel to even out the action of the piston rod.

    On 21 February , the world's first steam-powered railway journey took place when Trevithick's unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren ironworks, near Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales.

    The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray 's rack locomotive Salamanca built for the Middleton Railway in Leeds in This twin-cylinder locomotive was not heavy enough to break the edge-rails track and solved the problem of adhesion by a cog-wheel using teeth cast on the side of one of the rails.

    Thus it was also the first rack railway. This was followed in by the locomotive Puffing Billy built by Christopher Blackett and William Hedley for the Wylam Colliery Railway, the first successful locomotive running by adhesion only.

    This was accomplished by the distribution of weight between a number of wheels. Puffing Billy is now on display in the Science Museum in London, making it the oldest locomotive in existence.

    In George Stephenson , inspired by the early locomotives of Trevithick, Murray and Hedley, persuaded the manager of the Killingworth colliery where he worked to allow him to build a steam-powered machine.

    Stephenson played a pivotal role in the development and widespread adoption of the steam locomotive. His designs considerably improved on the work of the earlier pioneers.

    He built the locomotive Blücher , also a successful flanged -wheel adhesion locomotive. In he built the locomotive Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in the north east of England, which became the first public steam railway in the world in , although it used both horse power and steam power on different runs.

    In , he built the locomotive Rocket , which entered in and won the Rainhill Trials. This success led to Stephenson establishing his company as the pre-eminent builder of steam locomotives for railways in Great Britain and Ireland, the United States, and much of Europe.

    Steam power continued to be the dominant power system in railways around the world for more than a century.

    The first known electric locomotive was built in by chemist Robert Davidson of Aberdeen in Scotland, and it was powered by galvanic cells batteries.

    Thus it was also the earliest battery electric locomotive. Davidson later built a larger locomotive named Galvani , exhibited at the Royal Scottish Society of Arts Exhibition in The seven-ton vehicle had two direct-drive reluctance motors , with fixed electromagnets acting on iron bars attached to a wooden cylinder on each axle, and simple commutators.

    It hauled a load of six tons at four miles per hour 6 kilometers per hour for a distance of one and a half miles 2. It was tested on the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway in September of the following year, but the limited power from batteries prevented its general use.

    It was destroyed by railway workers, who saw it as a threat to their job security. Werner von Siemens demonstrated an electric railway in in Berlin.

    The world's first electric tram line, Gross-Lichterfelde Tramway , opened in Lichterfelde near Berlin , Germany, in It was built by Siemens. The tram ran on Volt DC, which was supplied by running rails.

    In the track was equipped with an overhead wire and the line was extended to Berlin-Lichterfelde West station. The railway is still operational, thus making it the oldest operational electric railway in the world.

    It was the first tram line in the world in regular service powered from an overhead line. Five years later, in the U. Electricity quickly became the power supply of choice for subways, abetted by the Sprague's invention of multiple-unit train control in By the early s most street railways were electrified.

    The London Underground , the world's oldest underground railway, opened in , and it began operating electric services using a fourth rail system in on the City and South London Railway , now part of the London Underground Northern line.

    This was the first major railway to use electric traction. The world's first deep-level electric railway, it runs from the City of London , under the River Thames , to Stockwell in south London.

    Using experience he had gained while working for Jean Heilmann on steam-electric locomotive designs, Brown observed that three-phase motors had a higher power-to-weight ratio than DC motors and, because of the absence of a commutator , were simpler to manufacture and maintain.

    In , Oerlikon installed the first commercial example of the system on the Lugano Tramway. Italian railways were the first in the world to introduce electric traction for the entire length of a main line rather than a short section.

    The company conducted trials at AC 50 HZ, and established it as a standard. Following SNCF's successful trials, 50 HZ, now also called industrial frequency was adopted as standard for main-lines across the world.

    Earliest recorded examples of an internal combustion engine for railway use included a prototype designed by William Dent Priestman , which was examined by Sir William Thomson in who described it as a "[Priestman oil engine] mounted upon a truck which is worked on a temporary line of rails to show the adaptation of a petroleum engine for locomotive purposes.

    Sulzer had been manufacturing diesel engines since The Prussian State Railways ordered a diesel locomotive from the company in The world's first diesel-powered locomotive was operated in the summer of on the Winterthur—Romanshorn railway in Switzerland, but was not a commercial success.

    A significant breakthrough occurred in , when Hermann Lemp , a General Electric electrical engineer, developed and patented a reliable direct current electrical control system subsequent improvements were also patented by Lemp.

    The first regular use of diesel—electric locomotives was in switching shunter applications. General Electric produced several small switching locomotives in the s the famous " tonner " switcher was introduced in Westinghouse Electric and Baldwin collaborated to build switching locomotives starting in In , the Canadian National Railways became the first North American railway to use diesels in mainline service with two units, and , from Westinghouse.

    Although high-speed steam and diesel services were started before the s in Europe, they were not very successful. The construction of many of these lines has resulted in the dramatic decline of short haul flights and automotive traffic between connected cities, such as the London—Paris—Brussels corridor, Madrid—Barcelona, Milan—Rome—Naples, as well as many other major lines.

    High-speed trains normally operate on standard gauge tracks of continuously welded rail on grade-separated right-of-way that incorporates a large turning radius in its design.

    While high-speed rail is most often designed for passenger travel, some high-speed systems also offer freight service. A train is a connected series of rail vehicles that move along the track.

    Propulsion for the train is provided by a separate locomotive or from individual motors in self-propelled multiple units.

    Most trains carry a revenue load, although non-revenue cars exist for the railway's own use, such as for maintenance-of-way purposes.

    The engine driver engineer in North America controls the locomotive or other power cars, although people movers and some rapid transits are under automatic control.

    Traditionally, trains are pulled using a locomotive. This involves one or more powered vehicles being located at the front of the train, providing sufficient tractive force to haul the weight of the full train.

    This arrangement remains dominant for freight trains and is often used for passenger trains. A push—pull train has the end passenger car equipped with a driver's cab so that the engine driver can remotely control the locomotive.

    This allows one of the locomotive-hauled train's drawbacks to be removed, since the locomotive need not be moved to the front of the train each time the train changes direction.

    A railroad car is a vehicle used for the haulage of either passengers or freight. A multiple unit has powered wheels throughout the whole train.

    These are used for rapid transit and tram systems, as well as many both short- and long-haul passenger trains.

    A railcar is a single, self-powered car, and may be electrically-propelled or powered by a diesel engine. Multiple units have a driver's cab at each end of the unit, and were developed following the ability to build electric motors and engines small enough to fit under the coach.

    There are only a few freight multiple units, most of which are high-speed post trains. Steam locomotives are locomotives with a steam engine that provides adhesion.

    Coal , petroleum , or wood is burned in a firebox , boiling water in the boiler to create pressurized steam.

    The steam travels through the smokebox before leaving via the chimney or smoke stack. In the process, it powers a piston that transmits power directly through a connecting rod US: Steam locomotives have been phased out in most parts of the world for economical and safety reasons, although many are preserved in working order by heritage railways.

    Electric locomotives draw power from a stationary source via an overhead wire or third rail. Some also or instead use a battery.

    In locomotives that are powered by high voltage alternating current , a transformer in the locomotive converts the high voltage, low current power to low voltage, high current used in the traction motors that power the wheels.

    Modern locomotives may use three-phase AC induction motors or direct current motors. Under certain conditions, electric locomotives are the most powerful traction.

    Accordingly, electric traction is used on urban systems, lines with high traffic and for high-speed rail. Diesel locomotives use a diesel engine as the prime mover.

    The energy transmission may be either diesel-electric , diesel-mechanical or diesel-hydraulic but diesel-electric is dominant.

    Electro-diesel locomotives are built to run as diesel-electric on unelectrified sections and as electric locomotives on electrified sections.

    Alternative methods of motive power include magnetic levitation , horse-drawn, cable , gravity, pneumatics and gas turbine.

    A passenger train travels between stations where passengers may embark and disembark. Passenger trains are part of public transport and often make up the stem of the service, with buses feeding to stations.

    Passenger trains provide long-distance intercity travel, daily commuter trips, or local urban transit services. They even include a diversity of vehicles, operating speeds, right-of-way requirements, and service frequency.

    Passenger trains usually can be divided into two operations: Whereas as intercity railway involve higher speeds, longer routes, and lower frequency usually scheduled , intracity transit involves lower speeds, shorter routes, and higher frequency especially during peak hours.

    Intercity trains are long-haul trains that operate with few stops between cities. Trains typically have amenities such as a dining car.

    Some lines also provide over-night services with sleeping cars. Some long-haul trains have been given a specific name.

    Regional trains are medium distance trains that connect cities with outlying, surrounding areas, or provide a regional service, making more stops and having lower speeds.

    Commuter trains serve suburbs of urban areas, providing a daily commuting service. Airport rail links provide quick access from city centres to airports.

    High-speed trains are used mostly for long-haul service and most systems are in Western Europe and East Asia. The speed record is Due to their heightened speeds, route alignments for high-speed rail tend to have shallower grades and broader curves than conventional railways.

    Their high kinetic energy translates to higher horsepower-to-ton ratios e. Since lateral forces act on curves, curvatures are designed with the highest possible radius.

    All these features are dramatically different from freight operations, thus justifying exclusive high-speed rail lines if it is economically feasible.

    Higher-speed rail services are intercity rail services that have top speeds higher than conventional intercity trains but the speeds are not as high as those in the high-speed rail services.

    These services are provided after improvements to the conventional rail infrastructure in order to support trains that can operate safely at higher speeds.

    Rapid transit is an intracity system built in large cities and has the highest capacity of any passenger transport system.

    It is usually grade-separated and commonly built underground or elevated. At street level, smaller trams can be used. Light rails are upgraded trams that have step-free access, their own right-of-way and sometimes sections underground.

    Monorail systems are elevated, medium-capacity systems. A people mover is a driverless, grade-separated train that serves only a few stations, as a shuttle.

    Due to the lack of uniformity of rapid transit systems, route alignment varies, with diverse rights-of-way private land, side of road, street median and geometric characteristics sharp or broad curves, steep or gentle grades.

    For instance, the Chicago 'L' trains are designed with extremely short cars to negotiate the sharp curves in the Loop. A freight train hauls cargo using freight cars specialized for the type of goods.

    Freight trains are very efficient, with economy of scale and high energy efficiency. However, their use can be reduced by lack of flexibility, if there is need of transshipment at both ends of the trip due to lack of tracks to the points of pick-up and delivery.

    Authorities often encourage the use of cargo rail transport due to its fame. Container trains have become the beta type in the US for bulk haulage.

    Containers can easily be transshipped to other modes, such as ships and trucks, using cranes. This has succeeded the boxcar wagon-load , where the cargo had to be loaded and unloaded into the train manually.

    The intermodal containerization of cargo has revolutionized the supply chain logistics industry, reducing ship costs significantly.

    In Europe, the sliding wall wagon has largely superseded the ordinary covered wagons. Other types of cars include refrigerator cars , stock cars for livestock and autoracks for road vehicles.

    When rail is combined with road transport, a roadrailer will allow trailers to be driven onto the train, allowing for easy transition between road and rail.

    Bulk handling represents a key advantage for rail transport. Low or even zero transshipment costs combined with energy efficiency and low inventory costs allow trains to handle bulk much cheaper than by road.

    Typical bulk cargo includes coal, ore, grains and liquids. Bulk is transported in open-topped cars , hopper cars and tank cars. Railway tracks are laid upon land owned or leased by the railway company.

    Owing to the desirability of maintaining modest grades, rails will often be laid in circuitous routes in hilly or mountainous terrain. In densely urbanized areas, railways are sometimes laid in tunnels to minimize the effects on existing properties.

    Track consists of two parallel steel rails, anchored perpendicular to members called ties sleepers of timber, concrete, steel, or plastic to maintain a consistent distance apart, or rail gauge.

    The track guides the conical, flanged wheels, keeping the cars on the track without active steering and therefore allowing trains to be much longer than road vehicles.

    The rails and ties are usually placed on a foundation made of compressed earth on top of which is placed a bed of ballast to distribute the load from the ties and to prevent the track from buckling as the ground settles over time under the weight of the vehicles passing above.

    The ballast also serves as a means of drainage. Some more modern track in special areas is attached by direct fixation without ballast. Track may be prefabricated or assembled in place.

    By welding rails together to form lengths of continuous welded rail , additional wear and tear on rolling stock caused by the small surface gap at the joints between rails can be counteracted; this also makes for a quieter ride.

    On curves the outer rail may be at a higher level than the inner rail. This is called superelevation or cant. This reduces the forces tending to displace the track and makes for a more comfortable ride for standing livestock and standing or seated passengers.

    A given amount of superelevation is most effective over a limited range of speeds. Turnouts , also known as points and switches, are the means of directing a train onto a diverging section of track.

    Laid similar to normal track, a point typically consists of a frog common crossing , check rails and two switch rails. The switch rails may be moved left or right, under the control of the signalling system, to determine which path the train will follow.

    Spikes in wooden ties can loosen over time, but split and rotten ties may be individually replaced with new wooden ties or concrete substitutes.

    Concrete ties can also develop cracks or splits, and can also be replaced individually. Should the rails settle due to soil subsidence, they can be lifted by specialized machinery and additional ballast tamped under the ties to level the rails.

    Periodically, ballast must be removed and replaced with clean ballast to ensure adequate drainage. Culverts and other passages for water must be kept clear lest water is impounded by the trackbed, causing landslips.

    Where trackbeds are placed along rivers, additional protection is usually placed to prevent streambank erosion during times of high water. Bridges require inspection and maintenance, since they are subject to large surges of stress in a short period of time when a heavy train crosses.

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    These are placed at various intervals along the route of a railway, controlling specified sections of track.

    More recent technological developments have made such operational doctrine superfluous, with the centralization of signalling operations to regional control rooms.

    This has been facilitated by the increased use of computers, allowing vast sections of track to be monitored from a single location. The common method of block signalling divides the track into zones guarded by combinations of block signals, operating rules, and automatic-control devices so that only one train may be in a block at any time.

    The electrification system provides electrical energy to the trains, so they can operate without a prime mover on board. This allows lower operating costs, but requires large capital investments along the lines.

    Mainline and tram systems normally have overhead wires, which hang from poles along the line. Grade-separated rapid transit sometimes use a ground third rail.

    Power may be fed as direct or alternating current. A railway station serves as an area where passengers can board and alight from trains.

    A goods station is a yard which is exclusively used for loading and unloading cargo. Large passenger stations have at least one building providing conveniences for passengers, such as purchasing tickets and food.

    Smaller stations typically only consist of a platform. Early stations were sometimes built with both passenger and goods facilities.

    Platforms are used to allow easy access to the trains, and are connected to each other via underpasses , footbridges and level crossings.

    Some large stations are built as culs-de-sac , with trains only operating out from one direction. Smaller stations normally serve local residential areas, and may have connection to feeder bus services.

    Large stations, in particular central stations , serve as the main public transport hub for the city, and have transfer available between rail services, and to rapid transit, tram or bus services.

    Since the s, there has been an increasing trend to split up railway companies, with companies owning the rolling stock separated from those owning the infrastructure.

    This is particularly true in Europe, where this arrangement is required by the European Union. This has allowed open access by any train operator to any portion of the European railway network.

    In the UK, the railway track is state owned, with a public controlled body Network Rail running, maintaining and developing the track, while Train Operating Companies have run the trains since privatization in the s.

    Passenger lines, primarily Amtrak , operate as tenants on the freight lines. Consequently, operations must be closely synchronized and coordinated between freight and passenger railroads, with passenger trains often being dispatched by the host freight railroad.

    The main source of income for railway companies is from ticket revenue for passenger transport and shipment fees for cargo.

    Discounts and monthly passes are sometimes available for frequent travellers e. Freight revenue may be sold per container slot or for a whole train.

    Sometimes, the shipper owns the cars and only rents the haulage. For passenger transport, advertisement income can be significant. Governments may choose to give subsidies to rail operation, since rail transport has fewer externalities than other dominant modes of transport.

    If the railway company is state-owned, the state may simply provide direct subsidies in exchange for increased production.

    If operations have been privatized, several options are available. In such cases, the state may choose to provide the tracks free of charge, or for a fee that does not cover all costs.

    This is seen as analogous to the government providing free access to roads. For passenger operations, a direct subsidy may be paid to a public-owned operator, or public service obligation tender may be helt, and a time-limited contract awarded to the lowest bidder.

    Amtrak , the US passenger rail service, and Canada's Via Rail are private railroad companies chartered by their respective national governments.

    As private passenger services declined because of competition from automobiles and airlines, they became shareholders of Amtrak either with a cash entrance fee or relinquishing their locomotives and rolling stock.

    The government subsidizes Amtrak by supplying start-up capital and making up for losses at the end of the fiscal year.

    Trains can travel at very high speed, but they are heavy, are unable to deviate from the track and require a great distance to stop.

    Possible accidents include derailment jumping the track , a collision with another train or collision with automobiles, other vehicles or pedestrians at level crossings.

    The last accounts for the majority of rail accidents and casualties. The most important safety measures to prevent accidents are strict operating rules, e.

    Train whistles , bells or horns warn of the presence of a train, while trackside signals maintain the distances between trains.

    An important element in the safety of many high-speed inter-city networks such as Japan's Shinkansen is the fact that trains only run on dedicated railway lines, without level crossings.

    This effectively eliminates the potential for collision with automobiles, other vehicles or pedestrians, vastly reduces the likelihood of collision with other trains and helps ensure services remain timely.

    As in any infrastructure asset, railways must keep up with periodic inspection and maintenance in order to minimize effect of infrastructure failures that can disrupt freight revenue operations and passenger services.

    Inspection practices include track geometry cars or walking inspection. Curve maintenance especially for transit services includes gauging, fastener tightening, and rail replacement.

    Since maintenance may overlap with operations, maintenance windows nighttime hours, off-peak hours, altering train schedules or routes must be closely followed.

    In addition, passenger safety during maintenance work inter-track fencing, proper storage of materials, track work notices, hazards of equipment near states must be regarded at all times.

    At times, maintenance access problems can emerge due to tunnels, elevated structures, and congested cityscapes.

    Here, specialized equipment or smaller versions of conventional maintenance gear are used. Unlike highways or road networks where capacity is disaggregated into unlinked trips over individual route segments, railway capacity is fundamentally considered a network system.

    As a result, many components are causes and effects of system disruptions. Rail transport is an energy-efficient [66] but capital-intensive means of mechanized land transport.

    The tracks provide smooth and hard surfaces on which the wheels of the train can roll with a relatively low level of friction being generated.

    A land vehicle's total resistance in pounds or Newtons is a quadratic function of the vehicle's speed:. Essentially, resistance differs between vehicle's contact point and surface of roadway.

    Metal wheels on metal rails have a significant advantage of overcoming resistance compared to rubber-tyred wheels on any road surface railway — 0.

    In terms of cargo capacity combining speed and size being moved in a day:. In terms of the horsepower to weight ratio, a slow-moving barge requires 0.

    However, at higher speeds, a railway overcomes the barge and proves most economical. As an example, a typical modern wagon can hold up to tonnes short tons of freight on two four-wheel bogies.

    The track distributes the weight of the train evenly, allowing significantly greater loads per axle and wheel than in road transport, leading to less wear and tear on the permanent way.

    This can save energy compared with other forms of transport, such as road transport, which depends on the friction between rubber tyres and the road.

    Trains have a small frontal area in relation to the load they are carrying, which reduces air resistance and thus energy usage. In addition, the presence of track guiding the wheels allows for very long trains to be pulled by one or a few engines and driven by a single operator, even around curves, which allows for economies of scale in both manpower and energy use; by contrast, in road transport, more than two articulations causes fishtailing and makes the vehicle unsafe.

    Considering only the energy spent to move the means of transport, and using the example of the urban area of Lisbon , electric trains seem to be on average 20 times more efficient than automobiles for transportation of passengers, if we consider energy spent per passenger-distance with similar occupation ratios.

    Due to these benefits, rail transport is a major form of passenger and freight transport in many countries.

    It is ubiquitous in Europe, with an integrated network covering virtually the whole continent. In North America, freight rail transport is widespread and heavily used, but intercity passenger rail transport is relatively scarce outside the Northeast Corridor , due to increased preference of other modes, particularly automobiles and airplanes.

    Australia has a generally sparse network befitting its population density but has some areas with significant networks, especially in the southeast.

    In addition to the previously existing east-west transcontinental line in Australia, a line from north to south has been constructed.

    The highest railway in the world is the line to Lhasa , in Tibet, [69] partly running over permafrost territory. Western Europe has the highest railway density in the world and many individual trains there operate through several countries despite technical and organizational differences in each national network.

    Railways are central to the formation of modernity and ideas of progress. Hong Kong has recognized rail as "the backbone of the public transit system " and as such developed their franchised bus system and road infrastructure in comprehensive alignment with their rail services.

    During much of the 20th century, rail was an invaluable element of military mobilization , allowing for the quick and efficient transport of large numbers of reservists to their mustering-points, and infantry soldiers to the front lines.

    However, by the 21st century, rail transport — limited to locations on the same continent, and vulnerable to air attack — had largely been displaced by the adoption of aerial transport.

    Railways channel growth towards dense city agglomerations and along their arteries, as opposed to highway expansion, indicative of the U.

    These arrangements revalue city spaces, local taxes , [74] housing values, and promotion of mixed use development.

    A study found that the opening of the Beijing Metro caused a reduction in "most of the air pollutants concentrations PM2. European development economists have argued that the existence of modern rail infrastructure is a significant indicator of a country's economic advancement: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. For other uses, see Railway disambiguation.

    For other uses, see Railroad disambiguation. For rail transport in different countries, see Rail transport by country. History of rail transport.

    Funicular , Wagonway , Tramway industrial , and Plateway. Electric locomotive and Railway electrification system. Chicago Transit Authority control tower 18 guides elevated Chicago 'L' north and southbound Purple and Brown lines intersecting with east and westbound Pink and Green lines and the looping Orange line above the Wells and Lake street intersection in the loop at an elevated right of way.

    For subsidies in Europe, see European rail subsidies. Trains portal Trams portal Transport portal Lists portal. Outline of rail transport Passenger rail terminology Rail transport by country List of countries by rail transport network size List of countries by rail usage List of railroad-related periodicals List of railway companies List of railway industry occupations Railway systems engineering Environmental design in rail transportation International Union of Railways British Rail Mine railway Transport Revolution Mega project.

    Porthmeia and the Diolkos", Mnemosyne , Vol. Part 1 — Presentation". Archived from the original on The Evolution of Railways 2 ed. Lancashire Railways — The History of Steam.

    Retrieved 23 August Landmarks of the Niagara Frontier. Railwaymen, Politics and Money. Archived from the original on 12 May Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.

    The Rise and Fall of Infrastructures: Heidelberg and New York: Railroads and American Economic Growth: Essays in Econometric History.

    The Johns Hopkins Press. Inside the Black Box: Retrieved 19 September Our Home Railways, volume one.

    Frederick Warne and Co. Archived from the original on 15 April A south Wales town has begun months of celebrations to mark the th anniversary of the invention of the steam locomotive.

    The Pictorial Encyclopedia of Railways. The Hamlyn Publishing Group. Biographical dictionary of the history of technology. Hungarian Contributions to Universal Culture.

    Hungarian Contributions to World Civilization. Organ für die fortschritte des eisenbahnwesens in technischer beziehung.

    Accessed via Google Patent Search at: US Patent 1,, on February 8, Practical Guide to Railway Engineering. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 3 April Retrieved 8 May Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 10 October Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 12 April American Public Transportation Association.

    Archived from the original on 15 August Retrieved 10 September The United States is dotted with cities that share a long history with railroads.

    Many of these communities continue to embrace their past, present and future ties to freight rail. When finalized, the decision should result in favorable revenue division adjustments to BNSF and improve the efficiency of the joint service product.

    Learn how easy it is to become a BNSF customer. We will show you how to get a rate, ship, track and manage your account.

    Our consistent and cost-effective service takes products of any size to customers where they need them. You can rely on our best in-class services to deliver your goods in the most cost-effective manner.

    The BNSF Team of approximately 42, safely transports the products and materials that help feed, clothe and power communities across the U.

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